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1.0 Background of Pastoral Women’s Council (PWC)

Established in 1997, the Pastoral Women’s Council (PWC) is a women-led, for impact, non-governmental organization working in northern Tanzania. PWC finds innovative and sustainable ways to support, mobilize, and enable pastoral women and girls to achieve better lives for themselves, their families, and their communities. We seek out pastoral women and girls in the most remote areas of northern Tanzania who lack access to essential services and help them to become self-reliant and take control of their own development. To deliver its mandate, PWC primarily works in three districts namely: Ngorongoro, Longido and Monduli districts, all located in Arusha Region.

2.0 Context of the Programme

Pastoralist Maasai community is both patriarchal and polygamous, and women suffer from a subordinate position, structural and intersectional marginalization and unequal rights. Since birth a girl is treated as a second-class citizen and her development is determined by cultural traditions and norms that deny her opportunities to make her own choices. Maasai women are marginalized in different ways; they have limited ownership and control of productive resources and property, are confined to the domestic sphere, and engaged in time-consuming chores that are unpaid, such as collecting water and firewood and taking care of children, the elderly and the sick.

A key characteristic of the pastoralist lifestyle is that a significant portion of their food and income depends on livestock. Livestock also represent more than just economic assets – they are social, cultural, and spiritual assets and define pastoralists’ social identity and security. Livestock and land, which can turn quickly into cash, are customarily owned by men, and women tend to be responsible for domestic duties, including caring for the children. Under customary law, women have no right to own and sell family property; instead, a woman is treated as the property of her husband and his family, and women are not included in decision making (at all levels). Women are limited in their ability to access social services such as healthcare and education due to prevailing social norms, exclusion from development processes, remoteness of their households and domestic workload and care burden.

Within this context, PWC through a multi-pronged 3-years programme aimed at socio-economically transforming the lives of marginalized pastoralist Maasai women in Ngorongoro and Longido districts, by increasing their livelihoods (and that of their households) and economic status, enhancing their access to productive resources (land and livestock), as well as enhancing their participation in decision making and development processes. PWC envisaged the programme would result in target pastoralist Maasai women becoming more self-confident, independent, respected, and visible within their communities and development processes, and in a better position to voice and demand for their rights and priorities at all levels.

The programme aimed at contributing to Sustainable Development Goal (SDG 5), with a focus on addressing gender-based inequalities to increase economic opportunities and access to productive resources for women of all ages, as well as their participation in development processes. The envisaged impact of the programme was: Pastoralist Maasai women living in Ngorongoro and Longido districts becoming more financially independent, confident, respected and visible with their household, communities and development processes and in a better position to demand for their rights and priorities at all levels and in all spheres of their lives.

3.0 Objectives of the Programme End line Study/ Evaluation

The overall aim of the evaluation will be to qualitatively and quantitively examine the outputs, results and impact achieved by the programme within the implementation period of 3 years.
The consultant will be required to collect and analyze data in Ngorongoro and Longido Districts based on the following planned programme results/effects:
1) Improved economic status and livelihoods of pastoralist Maasai women in Ngorongoro and Longido districts.
2) Increased access to land and natural resources through secured land tenure by pastoralist Maasai women in Ngorongoro and Longido districts.
3) Increased participation of pastoralist Maasai women in decision making and development processes within Longido and Ngorongoro districts.

The full programme results framework and programme Baseline Study will be provided upon contracting of the successful consultant.

Other key deliverables will be:
A. Provide Factsheet (summary of findings and recommendation in graphs, tables and explanations in short sentences) and raw data in a statistical programme.
B. Submission of a full report draft in electronic format to PWC. The body of the report excluding annexes shall not be more than 30 pages. This should include concise Executive Brief, high quality photographs and most significant impact stories.
C. Provide a PowerPoint presentation outlining key findings of the Study. The presentation should be one that can be shared internally and externally and will be used by consultant during presentation of the report to stakeholders.

4.0 Performance Assessment Criteria
Based on aforementioned programme goals and results the project’s performance assessment will be guided by the following criteria/questions:

4.1 Relevance
The extent to which the aimed activities are suited to the priorities of the target group. In evaluating the relevance of the programme, the following questions will be considered:
• Have the activities and outputs of the projects been consistent with the overall goals and attainment of its objectives?
• Were the activities and outputs of the projects consistent with the impacts and effects?
• Are the overall programme objectives relevant to the specific needs of the population in the programme area?
• To what extent are the objectives of the programme still valid?
• Are the activities and outputs of the programme consistent with the intended impacts and effects?

4.2 Effectiveness
A measure of the extent to which the programme activities attained its objectives. In evaluating the effectiveness of the programme the following questions will be considered:
• To what extent were the objectives achieved?
• What were the major factors influencing the achievement or non-achievement of the objectives?
• Have all planned target groups access to or are using programme results available so far?
• Are there any factors which prevented target groups accessing the results/services?
• To what extent the programme adapted or is able to adapt to changing external conditions (with particular emphasis to covid-19 pandemic and government policy shifts) in order to ensure benefits for the target groups?
• To what extend the programme has strengthened local civil society i.e formal and informal organized groups of women and youth and community-based organizations

4.3 Efficiency
Efficiency measures the outputs- qualitative and quantitative- in relation to the inputs. The extent to which the programme used the least costly resources possible in order to achieve the desired results. This will require comparing alternative approaches to achieving the same outputs, to see whether the most efficient process was adopted.
When evaluating the efficiency of the programme, the following questions will be considered:
• Were activities cost-efficient?
• Were programme’s resources managed in a transparent and accountable manner?
• How flexible was the programme in adapting to changing needs?
• Were objectives achieved on time?
• Was the programme implemented in the most efficient way compared to alternatives?
• How did the programme co-ordinate with other similar interventions to encourage synergy and avoid overlaps?
• What was the programme’s approach to addressing cross-cutting risk factors i.e anti-corruption, human rights, inclusion and gender mainstreaming, environmental impact of programme activities and climate change adaptation of target communities?
• How did the programme contribute to developing the organization’s (PWC) competences and capacity, including documenting, managing, reporting, communicating and utilizing programme results and emerging lessons?
• How did the programme address sustainability considerations beyond the programme timeframe?

4.4 Lessons Learned
• Why did things go the way they did?
• How can such problems (if there are issues/problems) be avoided in the future?
• What are the main factors responsible for the success (if there are successes)?
• How could the programme be replicated or scaled up?
• What changes could be recommended to program design, planning, coordination, implementation, and other factors?
4.5 Knowledge Attitude and Practice (KAP) Survey
• Determining how and to what extent did programme community Knowledge changed
• Determining how and to what extent did programme community Attitude changed
• Determining how did to what extent did programme community practice changed

5.0 Methodology

Proposed methodology should combine qualitative and quantitative methods. This will include, but not limited, to the following;
1) Desk review, including review of programme baseline report and annual reports
2) Development of appropriate and comprehensive data collection tools and administering the tools through, Key Informant Interviews and Focus Group Discussions. The consultant is expected to interview amongst others; project beneficiaries and their households, community members
(men, women and youth), relevant government officials, civil society groups working within target communities and local and traditional leaders.
3) Analyzing the data collected using statistical packages and developing a comprehensive Evaluation report
4) Collection and documentation of most significant beneficiary impact stories

Further, apart from collecting relevant data from target/treatment villages, the consultant will also be required to identify control villages (villages that did not benefit under the programme) in which to collect data and perform a comparative analysis with treatment villages. For quantitative data collection will be done through digital data collection tools such as ONA, ODK, and Kibo Kollect and analysis to be done through SPSS.

6.0 Required Skills and Competences

1. A commitment to child and adult safeguarding at all times. The successful Consultant will be required to read, sign onto and adhere to PWC’s Safeguarding Policy and Code of Conduct.
2. Advanced degree in any of the following areas: Gender, Development, Sociology and Community Development.
3. At least 7 years’ experience in gender mainstreaming and women’s and girls’ empowerment, social work and community development.
4. Demonstrated experience conducting endline surveys of multi- pronged socio-economic programmes targeting marginalized pastoralist communities.
5. Demonstrated understating of inclusive and sustainable development and the principle of leaving no one behind.
6. Demonstrated understanding of current socio-economic polices of the Tanzanian government.
7. Demonstrated experience and expertise in pastoralism as well as working with/ and in pastoralist communities.
8. Excellent adult facilitation and interpersonal skills.
9. Excellent written and spoken English and Kiswahili. Knowledge of Maa will be an added advantage but not required.

7.0 Submission of Proposals
Technical and financial proposals, not exceeding 10 pages, should be sent to The deadline for submission of proposals is 15th November 2021. Applications received after this deadline will not be considered.

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